Cotton is one of the most useful crops in the country. It can be used for hygienic purposes, for making yarns, and many other more. This crop usually grows in countries with subtropical climate and they require average temperature of 60 degrees Fahrenheit for germination and 70-80 degrees Fahrenheit for vegetative growth. Cotton cultivation would also require an annual rainfall of at least 50 cm. These factors should be maintained to ensure quality cotton harvest that can serve different purposes for us.
In cotton cultivation, the soil will be one of the resources to be considered. Good soil quality is beneficial for the plant’s growth as it will supply the needed nutrients for it to grow well. It will also need an excellent water holding capacity and aeration and a good drainage because it cannot withstand moisture and logging. Red sand loam, alluvial soils, and black soils are group of soils that are best for cotton cultivation. Seed rate and spacing should also be considered as it will surely affect the growth of the crop. A recommended seed rate of 15-25 kg/hectare and spacing of 75-90 cm between the rows is important especially in irrigated conditions. On the other hand, 12-16 kg/hectare and spacing of 45-60 cm between rows is good for dryland cotton.
Planting and harvesting time are also important factors as they affect the quality and quantity of pima cotton distribution in the market. The sowing of cotton begins in the first week of February in South Texas while in northern areas of the Cotton Belt it begins on first week of June. Proper timing should be considered as a specific season provides more opportunity for the plant to grow fully.
Fertilizers also play a role in cotton production. Its application depends on every state and the soil’s available nutrients. Chemicals like nitrogen and phosphorus are considered economical for dryland cotton crop. Nitrogen is usually applied in two doses, the half is applied at the time of sowing and the other one is applied as top dressing during thinning or before flowering.
Long fiber cotton requires additional soil preparation before sowing. This may involve ploughing, loosening, and harrowing to make the soil more suitable for cultivation. This is more helpful for mass production of long fiber cotton as it provide more nutrients and viable environment for its growth.
Cotton cultivation and production requires special attention on factors like soil and the application of the fertilizer. The quality of the crop depends on factors that affect its growth and viability. Planting and harvesting this crop would require knowledge and proper timing to allow for more quality production.